Canoes were either made from cottonwood or birch bark. The cottonwood canoe (stseq7ewll) was referred to as the dugout canoe. A cottonwood log that had been lying on the ground or floating in river was used. The log was chipped out with a stone adze and burnt out, then steamed to create its shape. Once the log was hollowed out , water and hot rocks were added to boil the water. This procedure was performed over and over again for several days by a group of men. The canoe was always constructed near a lake or a river and it was never carried.
Birch bark canoes (qwllenewll) were quick, light modes of transportation. This canoe was light enough to carry overland. The canoe's rib-like frame was made from willows. The frame would then be covered by birch bark and stitched with split cedar roots. The roots are secured and waterproofed with lodgepole pine pitch.